Fildes of aplplication and production process of forgings
So, steel forgings are special metal billets for the production of which technologies of forging or stamping are used. At the same time, they get the shape and dimensions of the required part.
The main market for steel forgings is the automotive industry, which involves the production of various gears and bearing shapes. Forgings are also in demand in the mining, power and nuclear industries.
Metal forgings, as a rule, serve as a basis in the process of conveyor machine tool production, where requirements to blanks are extremely high, because their exact size will ensure production efficiency.
The process of making forgings consists of three main steps:
- Cutting blanks according to the desired dimensions of the future product;
- Forging and stamping begins;
- Acceptance by the TCD.
The technological process of preparation that precedes the direct production of forgings is a whole complex of works:
- A drawing (sketch) of the future billet is made;
- Calculations are made: mass, dimensions, melting methods;
- The type of equipment for this or that kind of forging (press, hammer) is selected, the technological scheme is determined;
- Forging operations are determined, the required number of modes, transitions are calculated, and tools are selected;
- Calculation of modes: heating, cooling, temperature intervals is made;
- The rules for marking, acceptance, sample sizes, cutting schemes, methods that are needed for testing, to remove defects from the surface of the finished forgings are determined.
Varieties of tools
A set of tools used in forging or stamping of forgings make up a fairly large range. It is even customary to classify them according to the technological type of application. The basic tools include cut-out beats, flat or shaped, as well as various application tools: sledgehammers, hammers and multi-ton presses. The manual method of forging increases the plasticity of metal, but the accuracy of the dimensions and shapes of ingots is much inferior to stamped products.
Universal tools are used in small batch or single forging production. A certain tooling set makes it possible to produce metal blanks of different configurations and dimensions. Universal forging machines are also used: driven pneumatic hammers, forging steam and air hammers, and forging hydraulic presses. The latter type of equipment is needed for making large-size heavy ingots. Hammers, on the other hand, are used in the production of small parts, blanks, and bars. There is also a class of supporting tools for forging on hammers and presses. These include various types of tongs, stands and chucks.
Any set of forging tools is needed to move, hold, grip, measure blanks in the current work process. The efficiency of the entire manufacturing equipment and the quality of the blanks produced depends on the production equipment.