METAL PROCESSING (MACHINING, TURNING, MILLING, ETC.)
Metalworking is a technological process that involves the impact on metal products, alloys. The main purpose of different types of impacts is to change the size, shape, physical and mechanical characteristics, properties of products. In modern industry there is a wide variety of methods and technologies for processing metals. All of them are used in production.
This type of machining is carried out to change the external shape, configuration and size of the product. It is used in cases where it is necessary to adjust the finished part to a given size. Cutting tools, metal-cutting machines and welding are used in this process.
The finished part has a perfect shape, smooth surface, correct dimensions with millimeter accuracy in accordance with the drawings.
Metal machining includes several different types of technology. One of them is the technology of turning or screw-turning. It is performed using a special tool – a cutter on a lathe. Turning is used for parts with cylindrical, spiral and helical shapes. The workpiece is clamped on the lathe, then a rotational impulse is given to it, while the pick is given a translational impulse. In this way, the cutter grinds the workpiece in the desired direction (lengthwise or crosswise).
Machining with a milling cutter
Milling is also a method of cutting metal, but with it the workpiece is given a translational impulse, and the cutting tool – milling cutter – a rotational impulse. This technology is used when it is necessary to process a horizontal, shaped, inclined or vertical surface, gears, to make a groove, groove.
The peculiarity of the process is that each “tooth” of the cutter interrupts the cutting process.
Punching is another method in the category of metal machining. It is carried out with the help of special, so-called chiseling equipment. A special cutter makes a reciprocating movement in the vertical plane. In the horizontal plane the feed movement of the workpiece takes place.
This method is used to obtain grooves, shaped surfaces of low height with large cross-sectional dimensions.
Drilling technology makes it possible to get through or blind holes in workpieces. This method also requires the use of machines. The countersinking method is used to increase the diameter of the hole. To obtain a hole with a quality surface and precise dimensions, the reaming method is used. The last method in this section, countersinking, is used to produce holes for semi countersunk or countersunk rivet and bolt heads.
Grinding is a finishing process which belongs to the final stage of machining. Its purpose: to obtain the most accurate dimensions of the workpiece. Grinding wheels or abrasive belts (coarse and fine grit) are used. The surface of the part is improved, the smallest defects are removed, and the texture becomes even and smooth.
The method of laser cutting metal is the most advanced among other methods of mechanical processing. This technology makes it possible to achieve jewel-like precision of part dimensions, high speed of processing, minimization of waste, and excludes possible defects in finished products. Finished products (elbows, pipes, fittings, channels) after laser processing are of high quality and have flawless external surface.
In addition, since during laser cutting metal is heated much less, the result is a part that is more durable, with high rates of resistance to deformation. Accordingly, the resulting product will serve many times longer. It is laser technology that is considered ideal for machining metal workpieces and structures.
Continued Part II