There are various ways of working metals. One of them is the so-called free forging. The fundamental process of forging is pressure. The method itself is a complex of certain operations alternating with each other. During these operations, the original workpiece is modified. This occurs as a result of the free flow of metal on the sides perpendicular to the movement of the tool, which subjects the workpiece to deformation. Therefore, it is not uncommon to hear this process referred to as free forging. The workpieces resulting from the forging process are called forgings.
Carbon steel – has high strength, used for construction reinforcement structures in construction, petrochemical, metallurgical industries. Pressed – produced by punching, used in mechanical engineering, mining and other industries.
Hammer – made with sledgehammers, hammers, such forgings are characterized by improved flexibility and hardness. Stainless – they are characterized by a homogeneous structure, used in the electrical industry, shipbuilding, for turbines, shafts, their weight is counted in tons.
Alloyed – products are supplemented with substances: chromium, nickel, manganese, cobalt, silicon, and so on, respectively, have an increased level of hardness, resistance to corrosion changes. Tooling – here alloyed or carbon steel is used, forgings are used in agriculture, as components for machinery and agricultural tools.
Pros and cons of forging
This process of manufacturing metal blanks has a number of advantageous features. These include the following factors:
- Metal of forgings is endowed with better quality properties, indicators, in comparison with casting.
- Forging makes it possible to obtain dimensional blanks, which is impossible or impractical with other methods.
- Since forging of forgings is carried out in parts, it is enough to use machine equipment (presses, hammers) of relatively small capacity for their production.
- Using universal tools and equipment, it is possible to obtain quality forgings at minimum costs. This is a cost-effective enterprise for single and small-scale production.
Among the significant disadvantages of this method of obtaining blanks are a fairly low productivity, as well as high metal consumption, a particularly time-consuming machining required due to large overlaps and allowances on the forgings.